Albrecht Durer’s Magic Square

A lot of this goes over my head. I’m not an astrologer. But I know someone who will understand this much better than me (!)

Interesting, nonetheless.

 

Zodiac Johann Kleberger. 
Astronomy and Magic in the Picture of Dürer

A.V. Lantratov

1. The ambiguity of reading the old dates. 
“The Magic Square” by Albrecht Durer

The most important formal result of NC, obtained by applying independent mathematical and statistical dating methods to the material of the Scaligerian version of the history of antiquity and the Middle Ages, is the detection of the system of chronological shifts lying in its foundation, [ХРОН1], [ХРОН2]. As a result of one of these shifts, pronounced in European and Russian medieval history, many events, documents and works of art from the 12th-17th centuries were artificially rejected for about a century into the past. In addition to this, in [ХРОН4] it is shown that a convenient (and familiar to modern man) positional decimal number recording system was invented for the first time by no means in the deepest (almost in the III millennium BC) antiquity, as claimed by Scaliger chronology, but only somewhere in the middle of the XVI century. And almost immediately, on the basis of Russian cursive, used in the then more primitive semi-positional (zero-free) Slavic-Greek number system, the familiar numbers from 0 to 9, called today “Arabic” or “Indian.” Moreover, – and now for us this is the most important point – initially the characters, which later began to be recorded numbers 5 and 6, had a different meaning: the number 5 at the beginning marked the six, and the number 6 – on the contrary, the top five.

In the aggregate of all this, the following follows: “records using the“ Indo-Arabic ”numbers in their present form cannot be dated to the epoch before the end of the XVI century. If we are told today that a date has been set on a certain document by a contemporary in the form adopted today: 1250, or 1460, or even 1520, then this is a fake. Either the document is falsified or the date is falsified, that is, it is backdated. And in the case of the dates of the alleged sixteenth century … probably some of them actually belong to the seventeenth century. Today, they are incorrectly interpreted by declaring the old symbol 5 as the modern five, and not the old six, as it was originally, ”[ХРОН4].

In the same place, in [ХРОН4], the bright evidence of the latter is given, happily preserved on the famous engraving by Albrecht Dürer “Melancholy”, fig. one.

Fig. 1. Engraving of Albrecht Durer “Melancholy I”This engraving depicts the so-called “magic square,” that is, a square table filled with different numbers in such a way that the sum of the numbers in each row, each column, and on both diagonals is the same (and, in this case, is thirty-four). But, looking closely at these numbers, it is easy to see that the number five in the first column of the second row (which should stand here to make the square “magic”) was drawn (more precisely, cut out on an engraving board) over the sixes that were originally located here, rice . 2

Fig. 2. “Magic Square” on Durer’s engraving (left) and the five, 
converted from the six (right). Enlarged fragments of fig. one

2. Dürer’s portrait of Johann Kleberger 
and the zodiac depicted on it.

However, the “magic square” of Durer, as it turns out, is not the only one of its kind echo, bringing to us the true primary meaning of the numbers 5 and 6. Exactly the same effect of their incorrect reading – and this time, referring to the date ! – found, upon careful examination, in another work of the same artist. This is a relatively small (37 by 37 cm) portrait of the Nuremberg merchant and banker Johann Kleberger, who allegedly lived in 1485 / 86-1546, fig. 3

Fig. 3. Portrait of Johann Kleberger. Albrecht Dürer painting, 
dated 1526 year. Museum of Art History, Vienna
It is believed that this portrait was commissioned by Albrecht Durer in 1526, as indicated by the corresponding inscription in the upper right corner: “1526” and Durer’s monogram under it. However, as follows from the above, this inscription, in fact, may indicate not 1526, but 1625 AD But can you check this assumption? The answer is: yes, in this case it turns out to be possible, because, besides the noticeable digital one, the same portrait also contains at least one more – hidden from the cursory glance – date recorded astronomically and placed in its upper left corner, pic. . four.

Fig. 4. “Astronomical” (left) and “digital” (right) dates 
in the portrait of Johann Kleberger. Enlarged fragments of fig. 3
One glance at the left fragment of fig. 4 , to understand that before us – quite frank horoscope. In fact, we see here six stars denoting six planets, as well as the Sun, represented in the form of a bright yellow radiance, Fig. 5-12.

Fig. 5. Calendar with the Ptolemaic system of the world. An interesting feature of 
this scheme, which distinguishes it from other similar images, is 
that it has a clearly expressed “magic” character: each of the signs of the 
zodiac is accompanied by a certain symbol, which had, according to the compiler, a 
“magic” nature (that is for the characters, it will be said below). 
Illustration from a medieval astrological manuscript 
(Bavarian State Library, BSB Clm code 826) 
Fig. 6. The sun, the moon and the five stars of the planets. In the center is a comet heading towards the Sun. Enlarged fragment of fig. Pic. 7. Seven Liberal Arts and their patron planets. Left



depicted: Saturn (geometry) and Jupiter (logic). In the center (and in the enlarged 
fragment to the right) are presented: Mars (arithmetic), Sun (grammar) 
and Venus (music). On the right are shown: Mercury (physics) and the Moon (rhetoric). 
At the bottom are images of planets and days of the week, conventionally 
designated by seven lamps. Illustration from the Tübingen 
Home Book – supposedly a medical astrological manuscript of the 15th century 
(University Library of Tübingen, code Md 2) 
Fig. 8. Zodiac person. A diagram illustrating medieval ideas about the influence exerted on human organs by the signs of the zodiac (left, above and below) and the planets (right). Illustration of the horn of the XVI century

Fig. 9. The sun and six stars-planets on the title page of an alchemical treatise: 
Johann Mylius, Anatomia Auri, sive Tyrocinium medico-chymicum, Frankfurt, 1628 
Fig. 10. Jean Gerson (theologian and chancellor of the University of Paris, who allegedly lived between 1363-1429) in the form of a pilgrim. The right shows an enlarged fragment with a shield, which depicts the sun, moon and five stars-planets. An engraving allegedly of the end of the 15th century, attributed to Albrecht Durer 11. Horseman-Sun. Illustration from the festival book of the end of the XVI century (code BSB Cod. Icon. 340) Fig. 12. Sun on engraving by Hans Vaiditz. Ostensibly middle of the XVI century



The only ambiguity arises in connection with the determination of the value of the symbol depicted in the center of the whole composition. At first glance, this is a common astronomical sign of the constellation Leo, which is present in such a quality on an infinite number of images, Fig. 13-14, including on the famous star map of the same Dürer, Fig. 15.

Fig. 13. The sun and the lion. Above the back of a lion is its symbolic symbol. 
Engraving of Virgilius Solis. Supposedly the middle of the XVI century 
14. The Sun with Leo (left) and an enlarged fragment with the symbol of the latter (right). Figure by Erhard Sean. Supposedly 1536 year Figure 15. The image of Leo on the star map of Durer (left) and its fragments with the symbol of this constellation (right). Supposedly 1515



As a symbol of Leo, it is interpreted in almost all descriptions of the picture in question. Nevertheless, as stated in [Roos], – and, as will become clear later, it is almost certainly the way it is – in this particular case this symbol has a narrower meaning and indicates not the entire Leo constellation, but only its main star – Regulus.

3. The first version of the horoscope – “with the Lion.” 
When was, in fact, a portrait of Kleberger written?

We first consider the first – the standard – opportunity.

In this case we get that in fig. 4 presents an extremely laconic horoscope – all the planets in Leo. The question is, in what years all seven planets known in medieval astronomy gathered in the starry sky in the constellation Leo? The HOROS program gives the following comprehensive answer to it: for the last thousand years, this has happened only twice – on August 14-16, 1007 AD. and August 30 – September 1 of the old style of 1624 AD The first decision for obvious reasons, obviously disappears, but the second is literally one year from the date recorded by the artist in the picture, fig. 4 , provided that the numbers 5 and 6 were for him not today’s, but the original value.

There is a perfect match. It turns out that at the end of August – beginning of September 1624, an important event for Johann Kleberger takes place, in memory of which he orders Durer (maybe immediately, maybe a little later) the portrait in question, and the latter will soon execute this order.

However, this is only a preliminary conclusion, which follows from a purely formal result, relating the above date precisely to 1624 and does not take into account the fact that in earlier times the beginning of the year was not always and not everywhere counted, as is usual for us today, from the first of January. In particular, in Russia, in the epoch of interest of us now of the XVI-XVII centuries, the new year began in September. And if, taking into account this circumstance, to assume that the portrait customer followed, at least in this particular case, this old (originating in “Ancient” Egypt) tradition of counting the new year from September, then the picture becomes much more interesting.

Namely, there are two possible options, depending on whether he accepted (again, at least in the case under consideration) conducted relatively recently – forty years earlier – the Gregorian calendar reform and the introduction of a “new style”. If so, then ten days should be added to the above date, and it turns out that the horoscope depicted in the portrait records September 9-11 (the new style) falling on the first month of the 1625 September year. That is, astronomical and digital recordings, Fig. 4 , will turn out (in part, as the first one is more accurate) duplicating each other and pointing to the same 1625 year.

If this was not the case, and the customer of the painting adhered to the old Julian account of the days, the result becomes completely amazing, since in this case on August 31 and September 1 fall exactly on the last day of 1624 and the first day of September 1625. And then it turns out that the zodiac in fig. 3 – New Year’s, and the portrait itself was painted on the occasion of the new 1625, with the beginning of this year in September.

The tables below show the calculated positions of the planets for August 31 – September 1 of the old style of 1624, and in fig. 16 shows a “snapshot” of the starry sky on the New Year’s morning of the September 1625 year obtained with the help of the StarCalc planetarium program.

JULIAN DAY (JD) = 2314467

YEAR / MONTH / NUMBER = 1624/8/31 (August 31, Art. St. 1624 AD)

THE SUN

MOON

SATURN

JUPITER

MARS

VENUS

MERCURY

173.3

147.3

150.9

168.0

165.5

170.1

176.9

0.0

-26.0

-22.4

-5.3

-7.8

-3.2

3.6

5.0

4.3

4.4

4.9

4.8

4.9

5.1

LION / VIRGO

A LION

A LION

LION / VIRGO

A LION

LION / VIRGO

LION / VIRGO

JULIAN DAY (JD) = 2314468

YEAR / MONTH / NUMBER = 1624/9/1 (September 1, Art. St., 1624 AD)

THE SUN

MOON

SATURN

JUPITER

MARS

VENUS

MERCURY

174.3

159.5

151.0

168.2

166.1

171.3

178.7

0.0

-14.8

-23.2

-6.0

-8.1

-2.9

4.4

5.0

4.6

4.4

4.9

4.8

5.0

5.1

LION / VIRGO

A LION

A LION

LION / VIRGO

A LION

LION / VIRGO

LION / VIRGO

Fig. 16. The position of the planets in the morning (two hours after sunrise) 
on September 1 st. Art. (September 11 n. Art.) 1624 AD The place of observation is Nuremberg. 
Based on the screen of the program StarCalc
Thus, we have three options relating the zodiacal date recorded in the picture, depending on the possible calendar representations of its customer, at the end of the eighth month of January 1624, the end of the first decade of the first month, or exactly at the beginning of September 1625.

A natural question arises: which of these options best suits the image in fig. 3 ? As we shall now see, the latter, since it is with him that a number of other details of the picture in question ideally agree.

4. “Year of Saturn” and the symbolic meaning of the “lion” horoscope

First of all, take a look at the two figures depicted in the lower left and right corners of the portrait, fig. 17, and try to understand what they mean.

Fig. 17. The figures in the lower part of the portrait of Johann Kleberger. 
Enlarged fragments of fig. 3
With the left of them – clover trefoil growing on the top of the mountain – there are no questions. This is an ordinary coat of arms with the symbolism of the owner. Exactly the same symbol can be seen on another preserved image of Johann Kleberger (from the clover, by the way, his very last name occurs), Fig. 18.

Fig. 18. Johannes Kleberger on the medal of an unknown Nuremberg master, 
attributable, as well as the portrait of Dürer, to 1526. On the back side you can see a 
helmet, above which is a mountain with a trefoil growing on its top.
But what exactly does the right mean? Of course, it is quite possible to say that this is “just a beautiful picture, a pair to a shield,” and so be satisfied. However, given the above, in this picture it is easy to recognize the astronomical plot, which is slightly veiled under the heraldic style. In fact, we see here a long-bearded old man holding two trefoils in his hands. The background of this composition suggests itself: six identical leaves (as well as six identical stars in the opposite corner of the same portrait, Fig. 4 ) most likely denote six planets, fig. 19-21, and the elder – some seventh planet.

Fig. 19. Planetary tree. The title page of the alchemical treatise: 
Basilius Valentinus, Occulta Philosophia, Frankfurt am Mayn, 1613 
Fig. 20. Planets (they are alchemical elements), depicted as leaflets on the branches of a tree. Enlarged fragment of fig. 19 Figure 21. The sun, moon and planets on the branches of the alchemical tree. Illustration from a treatise: Johann Mylius, Philosophia Reformata, Frankfurt, 1622


The question is, what exactly? Obviously, this is either Jupiter or Saturn, since these two planets most often (and the latter almost always) were depicted in this form, fig. 22

Fig. 22. Jupiter (left) and Saturn (right) on the engravings of Hans Burgkmair. 
Supposedly the end of the XV – the beginning of the XVI century
Strictly speaking, more or less similar images are sometimes found for Mars, Mercury and the Sun, but they always have signatures or characteristic attributes (the sword of Mars, the winged rod of Mercury, etc.), which make it possible to understand what kind of planet is meant , Fig. 13 . In the absence of such attributes, it is Jupiter with Saturn that remains, since the only sign for identification, in this case, is the actual age, and the latter are the oldest among the “planetary” gods.

So, consider the first option. In this case, it turns out that the six planets are divided into two triples, depicted as trefoils in the hands of the old man-Jupiter. From an astronomical point of view, this means that the three planets must be on one side of Jupiter, and three on the other. But this was exactly the case in the “New Year’s” decision of 1624/25 obtained above: Mercury, the Sun and Venus were to the left of Jupiter, from the Maiden’s side, and Mars, the Moon and Saturn on the right, fig. 16 . That is, when identifying the elder in Fig. 17 with Jupiter, the whole composition acquires the value of an additional astronomical reference to the main horoscope.

In the second case, such a transparent correspondence, of course, is no longer observed, however, as it turns out, it does not in the least contradict the “New Year” version of the dating obtained above. And even more, not only confirms it additionally, but also allows for a deeper understanding of the logic and way of thinking that guided the author and / or customer of the portrait in question.

Namely, let us ask ourselves a question: what else, apart from dividing the planets into two groups, can mean the fact that all of them are depicted as identical, small and, moreover, in the hands of the old man, who personified Saturn? Obviously, the fact that the latter holds them all in some kind of submission (literally, “in the hands”). The question is, what kind of “submission” can there be? The answer again gives rice. sixteen. The fact is that the observer, who looked at the starry sky on New Year’s Eve of 1625 September, saw Saturn ascend about two hours before dawn, half an hour later the Moon (in the form of a barely noticeable or even completely indistinguishable serpika), and an hour later – all other planets. That is, figuratively speaking, in these pre-dawn hours in the sky, Saturn reigned supremely, heralding that the coming months would pass under his “control” (like everyone else, equally “subordinate” to him, the planets whose fate, in the near future turned out to be “in his hands”, and, of course, with earthly affairs).

And, as is well known, this kind of correlation of the year with the planet “controlling” it really was a common practice in the era of Kleberger-Durer, fig. 23-24.

Fig. 23. Saturn – the lord of the annual circle. Illustration of a 
medieval astrological almanac. Supposedly 1491 year 
Figure 24. Saturn. On the back side is a vestal at the altar and the inscription “Good luck in the new year” (SPENDE NEUES GLUCK IM WECHSEL DES JAHRES). Medal issued in Nuremberg around 1810

This tradition has been preserved to this day, pic. 25-29.

Fig. 25. “Saturn – ruler of the year” (JAHRES REGENT SATURN). 
Medal from the “calendar” series, produced in Austria 
from 1933 to the present 
. Fig. 26. The front sides of two more Austrian calendar medals (for 1937 and 1972) dedicated to Saturn Fig. 27. Jupiter and Mars on the Austrian calendar medals 28. Venus and Mercury on the Austrian calendar medals . Pic. 29. Sun and Moon on the Austrian calendar medals


Thus, the identification of the elder in fig. 17 with Saturn also perfectly fits the solution found above. Is that reading the composition is a little more convoluted, and the resulting meaning is shifted from a purely astronomical in the allegorical plane.

To the latter, however, one can argue that Saturn, according to medieval ideas, was considered an ominous, extremely unfavorable planet associated with death and all sorts of bad influences. The publication [Saplin] summarizes these views as follows: “Saturn is the fifth astronomical planet … In individual astrology, Saturn is subject to the following concepts: parting, obstacles, difficulties, loss, opposition, endurance, patience, perseverance, solidity, alienation, loneliness, cold , age, difficulty, cruelty, steadfastness, constancy, envy and greed. In world astrology … Saturn is responsible for national disasters, epidemics, hunger, etc. … ” And also: “A great misfortune (Latin: Infortuna major) – the epithet of the planet Saturn, often used in medieval astrology,

In general, at first glance, it is difficult to imagine a reason that could induce someone to order their portrait on a similar background. And in most cases this would be quite enough to reject the option of identifying the old man in fig. 17 precisely with Saturn (leaving for him, thus, Jupiter as the only candidate). However, in this particular case, such a neighborhood can be very easily explained. The fact is that the above-described picture of how the “ominous” Saturn was the first to ascend on the New Year’s Eve of September 1625 was not entirely complete. If, on the other hand, to be completely accurate, then, as is clearly seen in fig. sixteen, “The very first” – according to the calculated data, three minutes before Saturn – one of the brightest stars of the sky – Regulus – appeared on the horizon. And already after Regulus came the turn of the “reigning” Saturn (by the way, the name of this star is also associated with the royal power and means, in Latin, “little king”).

Regarding Regula, the [Saplin] publication says: “Regulus (Regulus), the Heart of Leo … is the star α of Leo, … indicates happiness.” That is, from the point of view of the same medieval ideas, by the time of the rise of the “Great misfortune” = Saturn, his evil status was neutralized by the “happy” Regulus, and, therefore, positive features came to the fore – “endurance, patience, perseverance, solidity, … steadfastness, constancy. ” Reinforced in addition by the “royal” essence of Regulus. Who would refuse such a set?

By the way, it immediately becomes clear why Saturn could have been depicted in fig. 17 in the form of a good-natured old man, without their usual attributes in the form of a scythe and a devoured baby, fig. 22 . In this case, they obviously were no longer needed. On the other hand, the author’s train of thought could be more sophisticated and consist in the fact that, depicting the named old man without any characteristic attributes that would unequivocally indicate Saturn or Jupiter, he provided the viewer who was sufficiently sophisticated in such subtleties to correlate it with each of them, and in this and in another case, revealing an important part of the general meaning inherent in the picture.

By the way, Saturn has one more aspect, which could also be considered as one of the fragments of the multi-faceted symbolism of the picture. Namely, Saturn-Kronos was also associated with the ageless Chronos, that is, Time. And, therefore, the placement of his figure in the portrait, when looking at it from such an angle, could promise a long life as depicted, fig. 30-31.

Fig. 30. Saturn-Chronos, wishing good luck in the new year 
(VERTENTE ANNO – literally: “throughout the year”). 
Medal, issued in Augsburg and dated 1635 year 
31. Leopold Habsburg with his son Joseph at the altar of Eternity, opposite them is Hronos-Saturn with a broken scythe and an hourglass thrown to the ground and Fortuna with a cornucopia. On the back side is Cronos sitting in the clouds , holding in his hand a snake coiled around the number XVII, biting its tail (a symbol of cyclicity, rebirth, etc.). The Augsburg Medal, released in 1700, to commemorate the coming offensive of the new century

Thus, we see that even the standard interpretation of the symbol in fig. 4 as denoting the constellation Leo, leads us to a very interesting and symbolically rich result. However, as mentioned above, there is another way to read, according to which this symbol indicates a particular star of the sky – Regulus. Now consider this opportunity.

5. The second version of the horoscope – “with Regulus”. 
When was Johann Kleberger born?

In this case we get that in fig. fourThe next horoscope is presented – all the planets in the vicinity of Regula. At first glance, it may seem that there is no difference with the already explored option – all the planets in Leo are not here, because, as mentioned above, one of the names of Regulus used by medieval astronomers was “Heart of Leo” (Cor Leonis), and the phrases “ in Leo “and” in the neighborhood of the heart of Leo “make an impression, in general, synonymous. However, from a purely astronomical point of view, there is a significant difference between them, due to the fact that the exact position of the star Regulus does not coincide with the geometric center of the Leo constellation (and its projection on the ecliptic). In fact, Regulus is much closer to Cancer than to Virgo. Consequently, in order to properly take into account this nuance, the region allowed for the planets must be somewhat expanded,

Thus, the horoscope extended “according to Regulus” takes the following form – all planets from the middle of Cancer to Virgo.

It is quite obvious that among the astronomically possible solutions, the “New Year” days found on August 31 – September 1, 1624 (as well as the year 1007, which is knowingly falling away) will remain. And that means everything said earlier will fully retain its strength. The question, in this case, is only whether there will be new solutions, and if so, which ones? Perhaps, among them there will be one that would correspond to the Scaligerian dating of the picture in question?

The calculation performed later in the HOROS program showed that, as was to be expected, in addition to the two solutions mentioned above, there are three more:

1) August 30 – September 1, 1445 AD; 
2) October 10-11, 1564 AD; 
3) 3-6 August old style 1624 ADThe first of these decisions, AD 1445, however, disappears immediately, since it turns out to be forty years earlier than the Scaligerian date of birth of Johann Kleberger, 1485/86. According to the same Scaligerian chronology, the second, dated 1564 AD, disappears twenty years before this date, in 1546. Equally, both of these decisions do not correspond to the Scaligerian dating of the life of Albrecht Dürer – allegedly 1471-1528 years – the monogram of which signed the picture in question, fig. 4 . That is, as we see, the dating proposed by the Scaligerian historians – as if the year 1526 – is not confirmed in this case either.

As a result, for further analysis, only one solution remains – 3-6 August old style (13-16 August new style) 1624 AD Let’s do it.

Instantly, attention is drawn to the fact that this decision turns out to be “paired” to the already found “New Year’s” decision of the end of August – the beginning of September of the same 1624, only three weeks from the last one. This, obviously, can mean one of two things. Either the newly found solution is a side one, representing no more than a consequence of excessive expansion permissible for the location of the planets of the ecliptic region, or there is a separate story behind it, revealing an additional important fragment of the overall design embodied in the symbolism of the picture. And then it is necessary to understand which one.

Let’s try to find out. Above, we have already reviewed the details of the picture, placed in all its four corners. Only the central part remained, with the actual image of Johann Kleberger and the Latin inscription on the rim of the portrait circle. To her, we now turn.

So, here is the inscription – E [FFIGIES] IOA [N] NI KLEBERGERS NORICI AN [NO] AETA [TIS] SVAE XXXX. Translated into Russian: “a portrait of Johann Kleberger of Norik (Nuremberg – A. ), [pictured] at the age of 40”. It attracts the attention of “round” – exactly forty years old – the age of the portrait. This is on the one hand. On the other hand, as reported in [Roos], his birthday was August 15 (which source contains this number, does not say, but since, unlike the year, the day is much less prone to chronological distortion, both and, in particular, intentional – then, most likely, this instruction can be trusted).

This means that Kleberger’s 40th anniversary fell on August 15, 1624 (and he was born, therefore, on August 15, 1584). But it is precisely on this date (or, more strictly, the interval from August 13 to August 16, with the smallest deviation from the “best points” on August 15) that indicates the “extended” solution!

Thus, the following completely natural picture opens before us. On August 15, 1624, Johann Kleberger was forty years old (which, in those times, was a very solid age). And literally three weeks later, the new 1625 September year came, promising, according to the ideas of the epoch, to be very favorable (and should pass, in particular, under the sign of thoroughness and steadfastness – qualities that are undoubtedly very important for a banker). All this, in aggregate, was reflected in the remarkable portrait painted by Albrecht Dürer.

Which one of these two dates that were simultaneously recorded in the picture was considered as “main” at the same time cannot be unambiguously said. In the case of the first one, a fixation of the age and status already achieved was obtained; in the case of the second, a focus on further growth and prosperity in the future. But, most likely, the general symbolic message of the portrait was formed – in the perception of the author, customer and their contemporaries – as the balance of both. Or, to put it simply, the portrait in question was “read” by them in much the same way as modern commemorative postcards (this, by the way, implies that he could be ordered not by the “hero of the occasion”, as it is believed, but by someone from his family or friends as a gift).

This is the result that follows from the purely historical background of the “anniversary” date of August 15 (new style) 1624. Now let’s look at its astronomical aspect. Namely, the extent to which the picture of the sky observed on this date corresponded to what we see in fig. 4 .

So, the table below shows the calculated positions of the planets on the specified date, and Fig. 32 is an illustrative “snapshot” of the starry sky, obtained using the StarCalc planetarium program.

JULIAN DAY (JD) = 2314441

YEAR / MONTH / NUMBER = 1624/8/5 (August 5, Art. 1624 AD)

THE SUN

MOON

SATURN

JUPITER

MARS

VENUS

MERCURY

148.1

162.9

147.7

162.4

148.9

137.9

130.0

0.0

14.8

-0.4

14.3

0.8

-10.3

-18.1

4.3

4.7

4.3

4.7

4.3

4.0

3.6

A LION

A LION

A LION

A LION

A LION

CANCER / LEU

CRAYFISH

Fig. 32. The position of the planets in the morning of August 15. Art. 1624 AD 
The place of observation is Nuremberg. Based on the screen of the program StarCalc
Comparison of this data with Fig. 4 re-detects complete agreement. Indeed, of the seven planets, five (the Sun, the Moon, Saturn, Jupiter and Mars) were strictly in Leo, the sixth (Venus) was on the border of Leo with Cancer and only Mercury was directly in Cancer. At the same time, right in the middle of the planetary “ruler”, there was Regulus, which ideally corresponds to identifying with it the central symbol in fig. 4 . Moreover, in the same place – in the center – there was also the Sun, which again, as perfectly as possible, is consistent with the image of the latter in fig. 4 not in the form of one of the faceless and no different from each other stars, but in the form of a radiance, equally covering each of the latter.

This is what follows from the formal location of the planets at the date in question. From the observational point of view, the picture of the pre-morning Nuremberg sky was as follows. A little more than an hour and a half before dawn, Mercury ascended, and forty minutes later Venus appeared. Then, almost simultaneously – literally within seven minutes – Saturn, the Sun and Mars rose (and in a few more minutes – Regulus). Jupiter and the Moon closed this procession, appearing only an hour and a half after dawn.

Consequently, of all the planets in the night sky, only Mercury and Venus could be observed on the anniversary date for Johann Kleberger. It is possible that this circumstance is reflected in fig. 4 that all the stars on it are divided into two groups with respect to Regulus (and the two lower stars-planets, in a sense, are contrasted with the four upper ones). If this is true, then the whole composition could be read as follows (from bottom to top): first, two planets appeared in the sky (represented by two asterisks in the lower part of Fig. 4 ), and then Regulus (the symbol in the center), the Sun ( ) and all the other planets.

And one more observation, well complementing the overall picture. The fact that on the date found above, Mercury first appeared in the night sky, fig. 32 , – and, therefore, the day of the anniversary of Kleberger was “the day of Mercury” – was probably also viewed by people of that era in a symbolic way and was perceived as a good omen, since Mercury was considered (and is) the patron of trade and wealth, often portrayed with a money bag fig 33-35, and Kleberger, as already mentioned, was a banker and merchant.

Fig. 33. “Children of Mercury.” Engraving of Hans Sebald Beham, depicting 
Mercury riding in a chariot and representatives of professions whom he patronizes 
(artists, sculptors, musicians, scribes, etc., on the left) and its enlarged fragment 
with figures of an astronomer and a merchant with a money bag (on the right). Supposedly the middle of the XVI century 
Fig. 34. Mercury with a money bag on the relief of Artus Quellin (mid-17th century, Amsterdam, Royal Palace, left) and the picture of Charles Meignier (first half of the 19th century, Louvre, right) . Pic. 35. Year of Mercury (JAHR DES MERKUR). The last of the twelve issued to the present day Austrian calendar medals dedicated to Mercury


6. “Regula sign” and “magical” character of Kleberger’s portrait

Thus, we see that on both dates we found – “anniversary” and “New Year” – the “regal” Regulus played a decisive role both in the immediate astronomical picture and, especially, in its symbolic interpretation. That is, figuratively speaking, it is quite possible to say that the portrait of Johann Kleberger is devoted to events that happened “under the sign of Regulus”.

And it is remarkable that it is this premise that turns out to be a completely transparent image expressed in the last remaining unexamined detail in fig. 3 . Namely, at the very end of the inscription circle around the portrait circle (the text of which was fully cited above) a bizarre symbol is placed, which is the so-called “sign of the spirit” Regulus, fig. 36

Fig. 36. A fragment of the inscription on the portrait of Johann Kleberger 
with the “magic sign” Regulus. Enlarged fragments of fig. 3
Such signs, designed to accumulate the influences exerted by one or another astral (angelic, demonic, etc.) essence, go back (in most cases) to the famous work by Cornelius Agrippa “Occult Philosophy” (first published, it is believed, in 1531) fig 37, and are found on the set of objects of “magical” nature created in the considered era, fig. 38-39.

Fig. 37. A page from the “Occult Philosophy” with images of the signs of a 
number of celestial objects (Pleiades clusters, the Small and Great Dog constellations, the 
stars of Aldebaran and Spika, etc .; on the left) and its fragment with the Regulus sign (right). 
Taken from: Henricus Agrippa, De Occulta Philosophia Libri Tres, Coloniae, 1533 
Fig. 38. “The Astronomical Seal of the Lion” (ASTRONOMICVM SIGILLVM LEONIS). The front side shows the Sun in Leo, on the back side – signs of the Sun, Leo and Regulus. Taken from [Roos] Pic. 39. “Magic Sign” Regula. Enlarged fragment of fig. five

It is clear that the presence in the portrait of Kleberger of this sign should, on the one hand, “draw” to its owner the beneficial effect exerted by Regulus, and on the other, emphasized that the picture itself was written “under a lucky star”. Lastly, by the way, it should be understood almost literally, since Regulus, as mentioned above, according to the ideas at that time “pointed to happiness.”

Thus, in general, it turns out that the portrait of Johann Kleberger, written by Durer, is a kind of talisman, which, according to the author or customer, intends to bring the happiness depicted on him, sent by the “regal” Regulus. And also, apparently, and “endurance, patience, perseverance, thoroughness, … steadfastness, constancy”, [Saplin] given by “neutral positive” Saturn. Incidentally, the same “happy” meaning could partly (along with the above heraldic and astronomical components) carry the image of clover, fig. 17 because it is a well-known symbol of good luck.

7. “The Sun in the Heart of Leo” and the birthday of Johann Kleberger

So, we made sure that the portrait of Johann Kleberger is literally full of symbolism Regulus. As in abstract allegorical, and – most importantly – specifically astronomical. Moreover, the first is only an appendage to the second, allowing more fully reveal the multi-layered content of the picture.

And now it will be useful to see what Scaligerian historians say about this. We already know that Regula’s symbolism is noticed by them. But how exactly is it interpreted by them?

The answer to this question is in the description of the medal from fig. 38 , cited in [Nowotny]: “Agrippa’s seals and characters,” she said. … Shows the coat of arms of Persia. On the reverse, there is a sign on the sun (Nachiel), the regulus, that is, the star on the back of the sun. This sign appears also in Agrippa’s book of the Kleeberger in Vienna; for the Sun and Regulus (Sol in Corde leonis) ”.

Translated: “Seals and characters (” conditional icons for commonly used concepts found on astrological medals and talismans, magic symbols “, [Saplin] – A. ) Agrippa is often found, along with many other signs, on post-medieval medallions and usually taken from his works. … The Sun Medallion shows the Sun in his astrological house, Leo, as on the coat of arms of Persia. On the reverse side, the character of the Sun’s spirit (Nahiel), the zodiac sign of Leo and the sign of the “heart of the lion” (Cor leonis), that is, the bright fixed star Regulus, are depicted. This sign is also present in Agrippa’s book and, moreover, Dürer portrayed him in the portrait of Kleberger from Vienna, because Kleberger was born with a significant conjunction of the Sun with Regulus (Sol in Corde leonis). ”

Without going into the subtleties of interpreting each of the listed characters, it is suggested here that the reason that prompted Dürer to place Regulus’s signs on Kleberger’s portrait was simply that at the time of his birth the Sun was in conjunction (“conjunction”) with the latter. Or, literally, it was “in the Heart of Leo” (“Sol in Corde leonis”).

Just like that, simple and straightforward. According to the author of [Nowotny], such an uncomplicated indication of the birth of Kleberger “under the sign of Regulus”, the astronomical content of the portrait is exhausted. In principle, one could hardly expect anything else, because in the overwhelming majority of cases, when meeting one or another ancient zodiac, Scaligerian historians do their best to get away from the potentially dangerous topic of his astronomical dating as soon as possible (since this rarely manages to get acceptable dates) in a convenient plane of safe reasoning “about something else.” For example, about occultism (however, it’s fair to say that [Nowotny] is devoted to the rather narrow issue of building “magic seals”, and in this respect there can be no complaints about it).

Nevertheless, the author of the description cited above quite rightly notes that on Johannes Kleberger’s birthday the Sun was “in the heart of Leo”. In fact, this is exactly what happened on the date of the 40th anniversary of the latter found above. The sun on that day was very close (about two degrees of arc) closer to Regulus. That is, indeed, “in the heart of Leo,” rice. 32 . And it is clear that the same picture was observed forty years before this date — on the day Kleberger was born. From this point of view, the last one was really born “under the sign of Regulus.”

After these words, it may seem that the same is true of the Scaligerian date of birth of Johann Kleberger. However, it is not. After all, the “anniversary” of August 15, 1624 is the fifteenth day of August in a new style. That is, according to our usual Gregorian calendar. Counting forty years ago from him, we fall on the day that Johann Kleberger was born — August 15, 1584. Again, the new style, since the Gregorian reform was carried out two years before this date. But if, as Scaligerian historians claim, Kleberger was born in 1485/86, and died in 1546, then on August 15 throughout his life he was a Julian. And if you now start any computer program-planetarium and open the “picture” in it on August 15, 1485, it turns out that the sun on that day was, although close enough, at about 11 degrees of arc, but, nevertheless, not at all “in the Heart of Leo.” And besides, in such – about ten degrees, that is, one-third of the average length of the constellation – there is nothing particularly prominent about the approach, and whatever arbitrary position of the Sun is taken, there will surely be a bright enough star on comparable or even noticeably smaller distance from the latter.

Hence, even the above-cited and the shortened explanation offered by Scaligerian historians is much better in line with the independent astronomical dating of the Kleberger horoscope that we received, than the Scaligerian dating of the period of his life.

By the way, speaking of finding the Sun “in the heart of Leo”, one cannot but notice that the anniversary date for Kleberger on August 15, 1624, by a happy coincidence, fell even more vivid event – the combination of four “stars”: Regula , Sun, Saturn and Mars, simultaneously trapped on a tiny portion of the sky, Fig. 32 . And although such a “double” connection, for obvious reasons, could not be directly observable, it is clear that, from the point of view of various kinds of mystical ideas of that era, such an event should have been regarded as important (and, due to the logic outlined above, a very favorable ) sign. So, it could well become one of the immediate reasons for writing the picture in question.

8. Is the star or sign zodiac depicted in Kleberger’s portrait?

Before we take the final result, let’s deal with several expected objections.

First of all, surely one of the defenders of Scaligerian chronology, who does not want to part with the dating of the portrait in question by her in 1526, would object to the fact that the stars in fig. 4 symbolizes, in fact, not a planet at all, but “just the stars” of the constellation Leo (and, accordingly, no horoscope on Kleberger’s portrait, he adds with a sigh of relief, no). The following can be answered to this. Firstly, the configuration of these stars does not even remotely resemble the drawing of the constellation Leo, fig. 16 . Secondly, the stars having their own names, if we assume that in fig. fourthey are depicted – in Leo more than six. Thirdly, if the artist wanted to designate the birth of Kleberger “under the sign of Regulus” and nothing more, then only his “magic” sign would be enough to complete the inscription with his name and age, fig. 36 . But the main thing, and this is the fourth, is still in the other. Namely, the very fact that the identification of stars in Fig. 4 with planets and not with some nameless stars, leads immediately to two dates, ideally consistent with each other, with the astronomical situation and all the details of the picture, directly indicates that such an identification is correct, since it is obvious that such an impressive result could hardly would turn out by pure chance.

Another potential opportunity to “tie the ends to the ends”, that is, to get the same date for the horoscope in the portrait of Johann Kleberger, is correct, from the Scaligerian point of view, if we assume that this horoscope is not observational-stellar, but calculated-sign, that is, the positions of the planets in it are not tied to the constellation, but to the sign of the same name (but not coinciding at all) with the sign of Leo. It is clear that such an interpretation, in this case, is extremely doubtful, but, nevertheless, it was taken into account for completeness. The verification calculation performed in the ZET program showed that in the interval from 1400 to 1800 the sign horoscope “All the planets in Leo” has no solutions. If, however, to weaken the required accuracy, and to re-search in the most “gentle” option, allowing the “climbing” of the planets by as much as 10 degrees into the signs of Cancer and Virgo adjacent to Leo, then two solutions appear – 2-6 September 1622 AD. and 12-16 August 1624 AD (both in a new style).

What do we see here? First, the fact that none of these solutions still fell into the 16th century required for confirmation of the Scaligerian dating of the painting. And secondly, the date of August 15, 1624 was again among them! That is the date Kleberger fortieth anniversary. According to the calculation, all the planets in that day were in Leo, and only Jupiter was in 7 degrees of Virgo. However, such a significant deviation practically excludes the possibility of making this decision, since Jupiter is not a fast moving Mercury, and it takes about 12 days to pass just 1 degree on the ecliptic, and 7 degrees give almost three months! But if you close your eyes to this circumstance (assuming that the calculation was carried out according to the theory, which gave bad accuracy, and the astrologer who carried it out never saw the real sky in his life),

9. About the September and January count of years

One more probable objection, which should be considered, follows from a direct comparison with each other of the datings of August – September 1624 obtained above. Namely, some doubt may be caused by the fact that one of these dates, the “anniversary”, turned out to be recorded in a new style, and the second – in the old, and besides, with the beginning of the year in September. But, by that time, four decades had already passed since the introduction of the Gregorian calendar, not to mention the fact that the new year in Western Europe at that era began, as is believed, in March. The question is, how can all this be combined? Or rather, could the second of these dates be perceived — by Klöberger and at least some of his contemporaries — as the date of the beginning of the new 1625 (September) year? And did they live simultaneously on two calendars at once,

In fact, with regard to the latter question, it could well be so. But, in this case, mixing dates from different calendars can be explained more gracefully. In fact, as we have already seen, the picture in question is not so much an ordinary portrait as a talisman, as indicated by the “magic” sign of Regulus depicted on it. So, it is through this prism, in the first place, that one should look at the dates recorded in this portrait-talisman.

And then everything is explained very simply. In fact, it is obvious that the “magic” date (that is, the date in which a certain “magic” meaning is embedded) —that is the “New Year” decision of September 1 (old style) of 1624 — does not have to be recorded at all as everybody”. On the contrary, the more unusual it is and, at first glance, more incomprehensible, the better. This is on the one hand. On the other hand, it is well known that it was fashionable to consider “Ancient” Egypt as the birthplace of the “magical” practices “born” in the epoch of the XVI-XVII centuries (“The Renaissance magician thought that he was returning to Egyptian wisdom”, and also: in the Renaissance mage, the illusion that there is a mysterious, precious story about the most ancient Egyptian wisdom, philosophy, magic, [Yeats]). Therefore, attention to what one or another “regular” date indicates

By the way, here it is worth noting that the presence of the “magic” sign Regulus on the portrait in question could have, in addition to the above, another aspect. Namely, this sign, borrowed from the well-known in certain circles “Occult Philosophy” – a book dedicated to “secret” knowledge, hidden from the uninitiated – could not only accumulate the beneficial influence of Regulus, directing it to the image magic ”function), but also, in itself, signal to a sufficiently informed viewer that there is some kind of secret message in the portrait hidden from the ordinary gaze. That is, to indicate the dates recorded in an obscure, innocent way, in an astronomical manner, revealing, when interpreted in the mystical spirit,

A small nuance. Strictly speaking, when correlating the January year with the September year, two versions of the recalculation are permissible. In the first year, September is ahead of January by four months (and September 1, 1624 begins September 1625), in the second year it is eight months behind (and then the beginning of September 1624 falls on the same date). From a formal point of view, both of these options are equivalent, but with the “magic” one, the first one is undoubtedly preferable, since the recalculation of the date “ahead” exactly corresponds to the aspiration to the future, that is, for the sake of which any talisman is created. Therefore, the above-mentioned correlation of the date of September 1, 1624 with the beginning of the 1625th, rather than the 1624th of September, is completely justified in the case of the portrait of Kleberger.

And the last. In the light of all the above, it is possible that the digital date “1526” placed in the portrait, meaning, as we now understand, the year 1625, could relate, in fact, not to the January, but also to the September year. And, therefore, this portrait itself could have been painted by Durer already in September 1624 (January habitual to us), that is, literally “hot on the heels” of recent events.

10. Conclusion. When did Albrecht Dürer live?

So, let us briefly list three main astronomical scenes, which follow from the obtained datings of the zodiac depicted in Johann Kleberger’s portrait:

1) in the first of two dates recorded in the portrait – the date of Kleberger’s fortieth anniversary – Mercury, the patron of money affairs and wealth, “reigned” in the night sky;

2) on the same date, the “royal” Sun was combined with Regulus, the “happiness-bringing”;

3) finally, the same “happy” Regulus, together with Saturn (also identified with the “eternal” Chronos), “rules” in heaven on the second – the “New Year” date.

It turns out a whole bunch of events, each of which, according to medieval views, was interpreted as a favorable sign, sent down by the heavens themselves and promising wealth, happiness and good fortune to Kleberger. In the same vein – as a symbol of good luck – the heraldic attribute of Kleberger depicted in the picture – the clover leaf could also be “read”. Finally, the customer’s intention of the painting is most clearly revealed by the “magic sign” Regula placed on it. All this, taken together, clearly indicates that the portrait of Johann Kleberger is not just an ordinary painting, intended to decorate the interior and delight the eyes of the audience, but, first and foremost, a talisman, the basis of creation (and proper understanding) which lay the old language of astronomical symbolism, Fig. 40

Rees, 40. Catherine de Medici’s love talisman. On both sides of it are 
depicted a multitude of “magic” signs and names of various angels, 
as well as symbols of the planets. It is possible that a 
certain (full or partial) horoscope can also be encrypted here.
In conclusion, we can say the following. We see that the unbiased astronomical dating of the zodiac depicted in Johann Kleberger’s portrait allows us not only to determine the real one — as it turns out closer to us a century — his lifetime, but also to get another important proof that the numbers 5 and 6 once really had the opposite meaning of modern. Today’s number 6 was initially perceived as a number five, and vice versa, today’s number 5 at first designated a number six.

As for Albrecht Dürer, whose author’s sign is this remarkable “magical” portrait, the result once again confirms the statement that was formulated and detailed in [ХРОН5] that either he (like Kleberger himself) lived later it is considered to be “gone” into the past as a result of a century-old chronological shift, or some artist with that name really existed in the XV-XVI centuries and was very famous, but practically nothing remained of his original works. And looking today at the works attributed to Durer, we see, in fact, the works of a whole pleiad of remarkable masters, created mainly in the 17th century and retroactively declared works of the 15th-16th centuries.

11. Conclusions

1. On the portrait of Johann Kleberger written by Albrecht Durer (whoever was hiding, in this case, behind this famous name), the artist was depicted not one, as it seems at a glance, but three related dates at once.

2. The first – August 15 (new style) of 1624 – indicated exactly on the fortieth birthday of the one depicted.

3. The second – September 1 (old style) of 1624 – marked the time of the onset of the new 1625 on the “ancient” Egyptian account.

4. The third – the date “1526”, which was presented explicitly and reported on the time of painting, meant, in fact, not the end of the first quarter of the 16th century, as it is perceived today, but, taking into account the old meaning of the numbers 5 and 6, the most 1625 (in January or September account).

5. In general, the portrait of Johann Kleberger is a highly artistic talisman created on the occasion of the anniversary of the customer, which is supposed to contribute to a long, full of earthly joys of life, in which at least “explicit” (portrait), “secret” (hidden from an innocent look astronomical), and, in fact, “magical-functional” (arising from the previous one and additionally underlined by the “Regula sign”) components.

Literature

[HRON1] A.T. Fomenko “The Foundations of History.” – Moscow, Rimis, 2005. 
[HRON2] A.T. Fomenko “Methods”. – Moscow, Rimis, 2005. 
[ХРОН4] Nosovsky G.V., Fomenko A.T. “New chronology of Russia”. – Moscow, Rimis, 2004. 
[ХРОН5] Nosovsky G.V., Fomenko A.T. “Empire”. – Moscow, Rimis, 2004.[Nowotny] Nowotny KA “The Construction of the Seals and Characters in the Work of Agrippa of Nettesheim”. – Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, Vol. 12, 1949, pp. 46-57. 
[Roos] Roos AM “Magic Coins” and “Magic Squares”: The Discovery of the Astrological Sigils in the Oldenburg Letters. – Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London, Vol. 62, No. 3, 2008, pp. 271-288. 
[Yeats] Yeats F. “Giordano Bruno and the Hermetic tradition.” – Moscow, New Literary Review, 2000. 
[Saplin] A. Yu. Saplin “Astrology for all. Encyclopedia”. – Moscow, Geleos, 2007.Article received 06/18/2016

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